Abstract: Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies.
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Tucker, J.A.; Jochems, C.; Gulley, J.L.; Schlom, J.; Tsang, K.Y. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2012, 4, 1333-1348.
Tucker JA, Jochems C, Gulley JL, Schlom J, Tsang KY. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer. Cancers. 2012; 4(4):1333-1348.
Tucker, Jo A.; Jochems, Caroline; Gulley, James L.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Tsang, Kwong Y. 2012. "Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer." Cancers 4, no. 4: 1333-1348.