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Cancers 2012, 4(4), 1333-1348; doi:10.3390/cancers4041333
Review

Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer

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Received: 24 October 2012; in revised form: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Responses to Human Prostate Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [432 KB, uploaded 11 December 2012]
Abstract: Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies.
Keywords: immunotherapy; prostate cancer; anti-tumor response; cell-mediated immunity immunotherapy; prostate cancer; anti-tumor response; cell-mediated immunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tucker, J.A.; Jochems, C.; Gulley, J.L.; Schlom, J.; Tsang, K.Y. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2012, 4, 1333-1348.

AMA Style

Tucker JA, Jochems C, Gulley JL, Schlom J, Tsang KY. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer. Cancers. 2012; 4(4):1333-1348.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tucker, Jo A.; Jochems, Caroline; Gulley, James L.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Tsang, Kwong Y. 2012. "Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer." Cancers 4, no. 4: 1333-1348.



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