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Cancers 2012, 4(4), 1333-1348; doi:10.3390/cancers4041333

Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer

1
Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
Medical Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Responses to Human Prostate Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [432 KB, uploaded 11 December 2012]

Abstract

Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; prostate cancer; anti-tumor response; cell-mediated immunity immunotherapy; prostate cancer; anti-tumor response; cell-mediated immunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tucker, J.A.; Jochems, C.; Gulley, J.L.; Schlom, J.; Tsang, K.Y. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2012, 4, 1333-1348.

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