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Cancers 2012, 4(1), 55-76; doi:10.3390/cancers4010055
Article

Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations

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Received: 2 November 2011; in revised form: 13 January 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Cell Genesis and Its Microenvironment: Chicken or the Egg)
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Abstract: Here, we investigated the relative contribution of genetic/signaling components versus microenvironmental factors to the malignancy phenotype. In this system, we took advantage of non-transformed fibroblasts that carried defined oncogenic modifications in Ras and/or p53. These cells were exposed to microenvironmental pressures, and the expression of a cancer-related chemokine cluster was used as readout for the malignancy potential (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10). In cells kept in-culture, synergism between Ras hyper-activation and p53 dysfunction was required to up-regulate the expression of the chemokine cluster. The in vivo passage of RasHigh/p53Low-modified cells has led to tumor formation, accompanied by potentiation of chemokine release, implicating a powerful role for the tumor microenvironment in up-regulating the chemokine cluster. Indeed, we found that inflammatory mediators which are prevalent in tumor sites, such as TNFa and IL-1β, had a predominant impact on the release of the chemokines, which was substantially higher than that obtained by the oncogenic modifications alone, possibly acting through the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB. Together, our results propose that in the unbiased model system that we were using, inflammatory mediators of the tumor milieu have dominating roles over oncogenic modifications in dictating the expression of a pro-malignancy chemokine readout.
Keywords: Ras hyper-activation; p53 dysfunction; cluster of cancer-related chemokines; inflammatory cytokines; TNFα, IL-1β Ras hyper-activation; p53 dysfunction; cluster of cancer-related chemokines; inflammatory cytokines; TNFα, IL-1β
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Leibovich-Rivkin, T.; Buganim, Y.; Solomon, H.; Meshel, T.; Rotter, V.; Ben-Baruch, A. Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations. Cancers 2012, 4, 55-76.

AMA Style

Leibovich-Rivkin T, Buganim Y, Solomon H, Meshel T, Rotter V, Ben-Baruch A. Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations. Cancers. 2012; 4(1):55-76.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leibovich-Rivkin, Tal; Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla; Meshel, Tsipi; Rotter, Varda; Ben-Baruch, Adit. 2012. "Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations." Cancers 4, no. 1: 55-76.



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