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Cancers 2012, 4(1), 218-243; doi:10.3390/cancers4010218
Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain
Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, St. James’s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK
Received: 9 December 2011; in revised form: 29 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Cell Genesis and Its Microenvironment: Chicken or the Egg)
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Abstract: In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context.
Keywords: tumor microenvironment; brain metastases; brain tumors; microglia; macrophages; astrocytes; pericytes; angiogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lorger, M. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain. Cancers 2012, 4, 218-243.AMA Style
Lorger M. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain. Cancers. 2012; 4(1):218-243.Chicago/Turabian Style
Lorger, Mihaela. 2012. "Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain." Cancers 4, no. 1: 218-243.