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Does Secondary Inflammatory Breast Cancer Represent Post-Surgical Metastatic Disease?
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, George Washington University School of Public Services and Health Services, Washington, DC 20037, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2011; in revised form: 12 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 20 February 2012
Abstract: The phenomenon of accelerated tumor growth following surgery has been observed repeatedly and merits further study. Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is widely recognized as an extremely aggressive malignancy characterized by micrometastasis at the time of diagnosis, with one interesting subgroup defined as secondary IBC where pathologically identifiable IBC appears after surgical treatment of a primary non-inflammatory breast cancer. One possible mechanism can be related to the stimulation of dormant micrometastasis through local angiogenesis occurring as part of posttraumatic healing. In this report, we review cases of secondary IBC and others where localized trauma was followed by the appearance of IBC at the traumatized site that have been identified by our IBC Registry (IBCR) and hypothesize that angiogenesis appearing as part of the healing process could act as an accelerant to an otherwise latent breast malignancy. It is therefore possible that secondary IBC can be used as a model to support local angiogenesis as an important contributor to the development of an aggressive cancer.
Keywords: surgery; inflammatory breast cancer; trauma; secondary IBC; dormant micrometastasis; IBC registry; angiogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hashmi, S.; Zolfaghari, L.; Levine, P.H. Does Secondary Inflammatory Breast Cancer Represent Post-Surgical Metastatic Disease? Cancers 2012, 4, 156-164.
Hashmi S, Zolfaghari L, Levine PH. Does Secondary Inflammatory Breast Cancer Represent Post-Surgical Metastatic Disease? Cancers. 2012; 4(1):156-164.
Hashmi, Salman; Zolfaghari, Ladan; Levine, Paul H. 2012. "Does Secondary Inflammatory Breast Cancer Represent Post-Surgical Metastatic Disease?" Cancers 4, no. 1: 156-164.