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Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinomas (MANECs) of the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Update
Department of Pathology, Ospedale di Circolo, viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy
Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria, via O. Rossi 9, 21100 Varese, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2011; in revised form: 7 January 2012 / Accepted: 12 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Abstract: The systematic application of immunohistochemical techniques to the study of tumors has led to the recognition that neuroendocrine cells occur rather frequently in exocrine neoplasms of the gut. It is now well known that there is a wide spectrum of combinations of exocrine and neuroendocrine components, ranging from adenomas or carcinomas with interspersed neuroendocrine cells at one extreme to classical neuroendocrine tumors with a focal exocrine component at the other. In addition, both exocrine and neuroendocrine components can have different morphological features ranging, for the former, from adenomas to adenocarcinomas with different degrees of differentiation and, for the latter, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. However, although this range of combinations of neuroendocrine and exocrine components is frequently observed in routine practice, mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinomas, now renamed as mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs), are rare; these are, by definition, neoplasms in which each component represents at least 30% of the lesion. Gastrointestinal MANECs can be stratified in different prognostic categories according to the grade of malignancy of each component. The present paper is an overview of the main clinicopathological, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of this specific rare tumor type.
Keywords: adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma; mixed exocrine-neuroendocrine carcinoma; gut
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La Rosa, S.; Marando, A.; Sessa, F.; Capella, C. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinomas (MANECs) of the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Update. Cancers 2012, 4, 11-30.
La Rosa S, Marando A, Sessa F, Capella C. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinomas (MANECs) of the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Update. Cancers. 2012; 4(1):11-30.
La Rosa, Stefano; Marando, Alessandro; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo. 2012. "Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinomas (MANECs) of the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Update." Cancers 4, no. 1: 11-30.