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Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4281-4293; doi:10.3390/cancers3044281
Article

Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer

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 and 1,2,†,*
Received: 24 October 2011; in revised form: 23 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 16 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Responses to Human Prostate Cancer)
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Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, both in the USA and Europe. Although incurable, metastatic disease can often be controlled for years with anti-androgen therapy. Once the disease becomes castrate resistant, the median survival is 18 months. There is growing evidence that the immune system, and in particular cytokines, play an important role in prostate cancer immunosurveillance and progression. Here, we have undertaken a clinical investigation of the role of two closely related cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13 in prostate cancer. In the largest series studied to date, we show that serum IL-4, but not IL-13 is significantly elevated in castrate resistant, compared to androgen sensitive disease. Notably however, serum IL-4 levels are also raised in patients with benign prostatic disease. Analysis of benign and malignant prostate tissue demonstrates that the source of IL-4 is epithelial cells rather than infiltrating leukocytes. Together, our data are consistent with a dual role for IL-4 in prostate cancer development. In benign disease, our data add to the evidence that IL-4 serves a protective role. By contrast, the data support a direct role for IL-4 in the progression of prostate cancer from androgen responsive, to advanced castrate-resistant disease.
Keywords: prostate cancer; interleukin-4; interleukin-13 prostate cancer; interleukin-4; interleukin-13
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goldstein, R.; Hanley, C.; Morris, J.; Cahill, D.; Chandra, A.; Harper, P.; Chowdhury, S.; Maher, J.; Burbridge, S. Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2011, 3, 4281-4293.

AMA Style

Goldstein R, Hanley C, Morris J, Cahill D, Chandra A, Harper P, Chowdhury S, Maher J, Burbridge S. Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer. Cancers. 2011; 3(4):4281-4293.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goldstein, Robert; Hanley, Charles; Morris, Jonathan; Cahill, Declan; Chandra, Ashish; Harper, Peter; Chowdhury, Simon; Maher, John; Burbridge, Sophie. 2011. "Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer." Cancers 3, no. 4: 4281-4293.



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