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Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer
Department of Research Oncology, King’s Health Partners Integrated Cancer Center, King’s College London, Guy’s Hospital Campus, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK
Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK
Department of Immunology, Barnet and Chase Farm NHS Trust, Barnet, Hertfordshire, EN5 3DJ, UK
Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2011; in revised form: 23 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 16 December 2011
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, both in the USA and Europe. Although incurable, metastatic disease can often be controlled for years with anti-androgen therapy. Once the disease becomes castrate resistant, the median survival is 18 months. There is growing evidence that the immune system, and in particular cytokines, play an important role in prostate cancer immunosurveillance and progression. Here, we have undertaken a clinical investigation of the role of two closely related cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13 in prostate cancer. In the largest series studied to date, we show that serum IL-4, but not IL-13 is significantly elevated in castrate resistant, compared to androgen sensitive disease. Notably however, serum IL-4 levels are also raised in patients with benign prostatic disease. Analysis of benign and malignant prostate tissue demonstrates that the source of IL-4 is epithelial cells rather than infiltrating leukocytes. Together, our data are consistent with a dual role for IL-4 in prostate cancer development. In benign disease, our data add to the evidence that IL-4 serves a protective role. By contrast, the data support a direct role for IL-4 in the progression of prostate cancer from androgen responsive, to advanced castrate-resistant disease.
Keywords: prostate cancer; interleukin-4; interleukin-13
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MDPI and ACS Style
Goldstein, R.; Hanley, C.; Morris, J.; Cahill, D.; Chandra, A.; Harper, P.; Chowdhury, S.; Maher, J.; Burbridge, S. Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2011, 3, 4281-4293.
Goldstein R, Hanley C, Morris J, Cahill D, Chandra A, Harper P, Chowdhury S, Maher J, Burbridge S. Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer. Cancers. 2011; 3(4):4281-4293.
Goldstein, Robert; Hanley, Charles; Morris, Jonathan; Cahill, Declan; Chandra, Ashish; Harper, Peter; Chowdhury, Simon; Maher, John; Burbridge, Sophie. 2011. "Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer." Cancers 3, no. 4: 4281-4293.