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A Review of the Role of Re-Irradiation in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma (HGG)
ATreP, Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia, via Perini 181, 38122 Trento, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2011; in revised form: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 28 October 2011
Abstract: Despite the use of more effective multimodal treatments in high-grade glioma (HGG), the outcome of patients affected by this disease is still dismal and recurrence is a very common event. Many therapeutic approaches, alone or combined (surgery, drugs, targeted agents, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, supportive therapy), are available in the clinical armamentarium so far. The attitude of physicians is increasingly interventionist, but recurrent HGG still remains a very difficult scenario to be treated. Radiotherapy with different re-irradiation techniques is increasingly proposed as a therapeutic option with interesting results, even though the resulting duration of response is usually quite short. Most lesions re-recur locally, with inadequate identification and targeting of viable tumor being the most important cause of failure. Prognosis is affected by many patient-, tumor-, and treatment-associated prognostic factors. Radiotherapy is delivered with many advanced modalities: 3D-CRT, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy, radiosurgery, and brachitherapy with or without chemotherapy administration. In order to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of re-irradiation in this setting, we reviewed the PubMed and MEDLINE databases restricting the search to original reports published from January 1990 to June 2011. The search resulted in a total of 155 reports: 78 of them covering 2,688 patients treated with different irradiation modalities overall fulfilled the entry criteria. Radiation therapy demonstrated to be an acceptable option in recurrent HGG with good response rates and acceptable toxicity.
Keywords: high-grade glioma; recurrence; radiotherapy
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Amichetti, M.; Amelio, D. A Review of the Role of Re-Irradiation in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma (HGG). Cancers 2011, 3, 4061-4089.
Amichetti M, Amelio D. A Review of the Role of Re-Irradiation in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma (HGG). Cancers. 2011; 3(4):4061-4089.
Amichetti, Maurizio; Amelio, Dante. 2011. "A Review of the Role of Re-Irradiation in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma (HGG)." Cancers 3, no. 4: 4061-4089.