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Cancers 2011, 3(4), 3856-3893; doi:10.3390/cancers3043856

Cytokines in Cancer Immunotherapy

1 Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA 2 Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2011 / Revised: 24 September 2011 / Accepted: 27 September 2011 / Published: 13 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy)
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Cytokines are molecular messengers that allow the cells of the immune system to communicate with one another to generate a coordinated, robust, but self-limited response to a target antigen. The growing interest over the past two decades in harnessing the immune system to eradicate cancer has been accompanied by heightened efforts to characterize cytokines and exploit their vast signaling networks to develop cancer treatments. The goal of this paper is to review the major cytokines involved in cancer immunotherapy and discuss their basic biology and clinical applications. The paper will also describe new cytokines in pre-clinical development, combinations of biological agents, novel delivery mechanisms, and potential directions for future investigation using cytokines.
Keywords: cytokines; cancer; immunotherapy; interleukin-2; interferon cytokines; cancer; immunotherapy; interleukin-2; interferon
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lee, S.; Margolin, K. Cytokines in Cancer Immunotherapy. Cancers 2011, 3, 3856-3893.

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