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New Approaches to Immunotherapy for HPV Associated Cancers
The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Qld 4102, Australia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2011; in revised form: 26 August 2011 / Accepted: 29 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Abstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of women worldwide and is the first cancer shown to be entirely induced by a virus, the human papillomavirus (HPV, major oncogenic genotypes HPV-16 and -18). Two recently developed prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines, using virus-like particles (VLP) technology, have the potential to prevent a large proportion of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection and to ensure long-term protection. However, prophylactic HPV vaccines do not have therapeutic effects against pre-existing HPV infections and do not prevent their progression to HPV-associated malignancy. In animal models, therapeutic vaccines for persisting HPV infection can eliminate transplantable tumors expressing HPV antigens, but are of limited efficacy in inducing rejection of skin grafts expressing the same antigens. In humans, clinical trials have reported successful immunotherapy of HPV lesions, providing hope and further interest. This review discusses possible new approaches to immunotherapy for HPV associated cancer, based on recent advances in our knowledge of the immunobiology of HPV infection, of epithelial immunology and of immunoregulation, with a brief overview on previous and current HPV vaccine clinical trials.
Keywords: HPV; vaccine; virus-like particles; immunotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style
Bergot, A.-S.; Kassianos, A.; Frazer, I.H.; Mittal, D. New Approaches to Immunotherapy for HPV Associated Cancers. Cancers 2011, 3, 3461-3495.
Bergot A-S, Kassianos A, Frazer IH, Mittal D. New Approaches to Immunotherapy for HPV Associated Cancers. Cancers. 2011; 3(3):3461-3495.
Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Kassianos, Andrew; Frazer, Ian H; Mittal, Deepak. 2011. "New Approaches to Immunotherapy for HPV Associated Cancers." Cancers 3, no. 3: 3461-3495.