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Cancers 2011, 3(2), 2358-2381; doi:10.3390/cancers3022358

Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

1
Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640, New Zealand
2
Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2011 / Revised: 21 March 2011 / Accepted: 14 April 2011 / Published: 13 May 2011
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Abstract

There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; breast neoplasm; ethnicity; developing countries; low income countries breast cancer; breast neoplasm; ethnicity; developing countries; low income countries
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhikoo, R.; Srinivasa, S.; Yu, T.-C.; Moss, D.; Hill, A.G. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. Cancers 2011, 3, 2358-2381.

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