Abstract: There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.
Keywords: breast cancer; breast neoplasm; ethnicity; developing countries; low income countries
This is an open access article distributed under the
Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Export to BibTeX
MDPI and ACS Style
Bhikoo, R.; Srinivasa, S.; Yu, T.-C.; Moss, D.; Hill, A.G. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia. Cancers 2011, 3, 2382-2401.
Bhikoo R, Srinivasa S, Yu T-C, Moss D, Hill AG. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia. Cancers. 2011; 3(2):2382-2401.
Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G. 2011. "Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia." Cancers 3, no. 2: 2382-2401.