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Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis
Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ, UK
Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
North East England Stem Cell Institute, Bioscience Centre, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2011; in revised form: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 19 April 2011
Abstract: In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP), have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC), combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis.
Keywords: breast cancer; cancer stem cells; side population cells; metastasis
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Britton, K.M.; Kirby, J.A.; Lennard, T.W.; Meeson, A.P. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis. Cancers 2011, 3, 2106-2130.
Britton KM, Kirby JA, Lennard TW, Meeson AP. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis. Cancers. 2011; 3(2):2106-2130.
Britton, Kelly M.; Kirby, John A.; Lennard, Thomas W.J.; Meeson, Annette P. 2011. "Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis." Cancers 3, no. 2: 2106-2130.