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Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma
Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics/Old Dominion University 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, Virginia 23508, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2010; in revised form: 14 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Abstract: Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.
Keywords: electric fields; electroporation; gene delivery; cytokines; enhanced immunity; nanosecond pulsed electric fields; non-thermal effects; apoptosis; caspases; anti-angiogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Beebe, S.J.; Schoenbach, K.H.; Heller, R. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma. Cancers 2010, 2, 1731-1770.
Beebe SJ, Schoenbach KH, Heller R. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma. Cancers. 2010; 2(3):1731-1770.
Beebe, Stephen J.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard. 2010. "Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma." Cancers 2, no. 3: 1731-1770.