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Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 127; doi:10.3390/mi8040127

Paper-Based Analytical Device for Zinc Ion Quantification in Water Samples with Power-Free Analyte Concentration

Department of Applied Chemistry, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Kanagawa, Japan
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Academic Editors: Frank A. Gomez and Carlos D. Garcia
Received: 25 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paper Microfluidics: Fundamental Studies and Applications)
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Abstract

Insufficient sensitivity is a general issue of colorimetric paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for trace analyte detection, such as metal ions, in environmental water. This paper demonstrates the colorimetric detection of zinc ions (Zn2+) on a paper-based analytical device with an integrated analyte concentration system. Concentration of Zn2+ ions from an enlarged sample volume (1 mL) has been achieved with the aid of a colorimetric Zn2+ indicator (Zincon) electrostatically immobilized onto a filter paper substrate in combination with highly water-absorbent materials. Analyte concentration as well as sample pretreatment, including pH adjustment and interferent masking, has been elaborated. The resulting device enables colorimetric quantification of Zn2+ in environmental water samples (tap water, river water) from a single sample application. The achieved detection limit of 0.53 μM is a significant improvement over that of a commercial colorimetric Zn2+ test paper (9.7 μM), demonstrating the efficiency of the developed analyte concentration system not requiring any equipment. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorimetry; analyte enrichment; PAD; inkjet printing; 3D-printing colorimetry; analyte enrichment; PAD; inkjet printing; 3D-printing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kudo, H.; Yamada, K.; Watanabe, D.; Suzuki, K.; Citterio, D. Paper-Based Analytical Device for Zinc Ion Quantification in Water Samples with Power-Free Analyte Concentration. Micromachines 2017, 8, 127.

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