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Micromachines 2017, 8(2), 40; doi:10.3390/mi8020040

Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Functional Biochips: New Avenues for Exploring 3D Micro- and Nano-Environments

1,2,* , 1
,
1,3
and
1,*
1
RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
2
Center for Advanced Laser Technologies (CETAL), National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Atomistilor 409, 0077125 Magurele, Romania
3
University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roberto Osellame and Rebeca Martínez Vázquez
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafast Laser Fabrication for Lab-on-a-Chip)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2757 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Lab-on-a-chip biological platforms have been intensively developed during the last decade since emerging technologies have offered possibilities to manufacture reliable devices with increased spatial resolution and 3D configurations. These biochips permit testing chemical reactions with nanoliter volumes, enhanced sensitivity in analysis and reduced consumption of reagents. Due to the high peak intensity that allows multiphoton absorption, ultrafast lasers can induce local modifications inside transparent materials with high precision at micro- and nanoscale. Subtractive manufacturing based on laser internal modification followed by wet chemical etching can directly fabricate 3D micro-channels in glass materials. On the other hand, additive laser manufacturing by two-photon polymerization of photoresists can grow 3D polymeric micro- and nanostructures with specific properties for biomedical use. Both transparent materials are ideal candidates for biochips that allow exploring phenomena at cellular levels while their processing with a nanoscale resolution represents an excellent opportunity to get more insights on biological aspects. We will review herein the laser fabrication of transparent microfluidic and optofluidic devices for biochip applications and will address challenges associated with their potential. In particular, integrated micro- and optofluidic systems will be presented with emphasis on the functionality for biological applications. It will be shown that ultrafast laser processing is not only an instrument that can tailor appropriate 3D environments to study living microorganisms and to improve cell detection or sorting but also a tool to fabricate appropriate biomimetic structures for complex cellular analyses. New advances open now the avenue to construct miniaturized organs of desired shapes and configurations with the goal to reproduce life processes and bypass in vivo animal or human testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: femtosecond laser assisted etching; two photon polymerization; ship-in-a-bottle laser processing; glasses; polymers; biochips; biomimetic environments femtosecond laser assisted etching; two photon polymerization; ship-in-a-bottle laser processing; glasses; polymers; biochips; biomimetic environments
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sima, F.; Xu, J.; Wu, D.; Sugioka, K. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Functional Biochips: New Avenues for Exploring 3D Micro- and Nano-Environments. Micromachines 2017, 8, 40.

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