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Micromachines 2016, 7(4), 59; doi:10.3390/mi7040059

Holographic Fabrication of Designed Functional Defect Lines in Photonic Crystal Lattice Using a Spatial Light Modulator

1
Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
2
ECE Department, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pei-Cheng Ku and Jaeyoun (Jay) Kim
Received: 11 March 2016 / Revised: 26 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Photonic Devices and Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4131 KB, uploaded 1 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

We report the holographic fabrication of designed defect lines in photonic crystal lattices through phase engineering using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The diffracted beams from the SLM not only carry the defect’s content but also the defect related phase-shifting information. The phase-shifting induced lattice shifting in photonic lattices around the defects in three-beam interference is less than the one produced by five-beam interference due to the alternating shifting in lattice in three beam interference. By designing the defect line at a 45 degree orientation and using three-beam interference, the defect orientation can be aligned with the background photonic lattice, and the shifting is only in one side of the defect line, in agreement with the theory. Finally, a new design for the integration of functional defect lines in a background phase pattern reduces the relative phase shift of the defect and utilizes the different diffraction efficiency between the defect line and background phase pattern. We demonstrate that the desired and functional defect lattice can be registered into the background lattice through the direct imaging of designed phase patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: microstructure fabrication; photonic crystals; spatial light modulators; holographic lithography microstructure fabrication; photonic crystals; spatial light modulators; holographic lithography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lutkenhaus, J.; Lowell, D.; George, D.; Zhang, H.; Lin, Y. Holographic Fabrication of Designed Functional Defect Lines in Photonic Crystal Lattice Using a Spatial Light Modulator. Micromachines 2016, 7, 59.

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