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Micromachines 2014, 5(4), 954-1001; doi:10.3390/mi5040954

Scanning Probe Microscope-Based Fluid Dispensing

1
Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
2
Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert Bosch Platz 1, 70839 Gerlingen-Schillerhoehe, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 1 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014

Abstract

Advances in micro and nano fabrication technologies have enabled fabrication of smaller and more sensitive devices for applications not only in solid-state physics but also in medicine and biology. The demand for devices that can precisely transport material, specifically fluids are continuously increasing. Therefore, integration of various technologies with numerous functionalities in one single device is important. Scanning probe microscope (SPM) is one such device that has evolved from atomic force microscope for imaging to a variety of microscopes by integrating different physical and chemical mechanisms. In this article, we review a particular class of SPM devices that are suited for fluid dispensing. We review their fabrication methods, fluid-pumping mechanisms, real-time monitoring of dispensing, physics of dispensing, and droplet characterization. Some of the examples where these probes have already been applied are also described. Finally, we conclude with an outlook and future scope for these devices where femtolitre or smaller volumes of liquid handling are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: pipette; microfluidics; atomic force microscope (AFM); scanning probe microscope (SPM); microdroplet; nanodroplet; dispensing; pumping pipette; microfluidics; atomic force microscope (AFM); scanning probe microscope (SPM); microdroplet; nanodroplet; dispensing; pumping
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghatkesar, M.K.; Garza, H.H.P.; Heuck, F.; Staufer, U. Scanning Probe Microscope-Based Fluid Dispensing. Micromachines 2014, 5, 954-1001.

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