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Toxins 2017, 9(9), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9090271

Benthic Archives Reveal Recurrence and Dominance of Toxigenic Cyanobacteria in a Eutrophic Lake over the Last 220 Years

1
Laboratoire Microorganismes Génome et Environnement (LMGE), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Université Clermont Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
2
ATHOS Environnement, 112 Avenue du Brézet, F-63100 Clermont-Ferrand, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miquel Lürling
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract

Akinetes are resistant cells which have the ability to persist in sediment for several decades. We have investigated the temporal distribution of akinetes of two species, Dolichospermum macrosporum and Dolichospermum flos-aquae, in a sediment core sampled in Lake Aydat (France), which covers 220 years. The upper part, from 1907 to 2016, the number of akinetes fluctuated but stayed at high concentrations, especially for D. macrosporum in surface sediment (with the maximal value close to 6.105 akinetes g DW−1 of sediment), suggesting a recurrence of blooms of this species which was probably closely related to anthropic eutrophication since the 1960s. Before 1907, the abundance of akinetes of both species was very low, suggesting only a modest presence of these cyanobacteria. In addition, the percentage of intact akinetes was different for each species, suggesting different ecological processes in the water column. This percentage also decreased with depth, revealing a reduction in germination potential over time. In addition, biosynthetic genes of anatoxin-a (anaC) and microcystin (mcyA) were detected. First results show a high occurrence of mcyA all down the core. In contrast, anaC gene was mostly detected in the surface sediment (since the 1980s), revealing a potentially more recent occurrence of this cyanotoxin in Lake Aydat which may be associated with the recurrence of blooms of D. macrosporum and thus with anthropic activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: sediment; Nostocales; akinetes; past blooms; anaC gene; anatoxin-a; mcyA gene; microcystin sediment; Nostocales; akinetes; past blooms; anaC gene; anatoxin-a; mcyA gene; microcystin
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Legrand, B.; Lamarque, A.; Sabart, M.; Latour, D. Benthic Archives Reveal Recurrence and Dominance of Toxigenic Cyanobacteria in a Eutrophic Lake over the Last 220 Years. Toxins 2017, 9, 271.

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