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Toxins 2017, 9(8), 247; doi:10.3390/toxins9080247

Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
2
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiological Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima International University, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112, Japan
3
Department of Microbiology and Infection Control Science, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan
4
Department of Microbiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan
5
Department of Bacteriology, Graduate school of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan
6
Faculty of Pharmacy, Yokohama University of Pharmacy, 601 Matano-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 245-0066, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexey S. Ladokhin
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Entry of Binary and Pore-Forming Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [877 KB, uploaded 11 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death. This review focuses upon the recent advances in cellular internalization of clostridial binary toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: clostridial binary toxin; iota-toxin; C2 toxin; cellular internalization clostridial binary toxin; iota-toxin; C2 toxin; cellular internalization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Takehara, M.; Takagishi, T.; Seike, S.; Oda, M.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hisatsune, J.; Ochi, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Nagahama, M. Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin. Toxins 2017, 9, 247.

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