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Correction published on 21 November 2017, see Toxins 2017, 9(11), 377.

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(8), 246; doi:10.3390/toxins9080246

Fusarium Mycotoxins in Swiss Wheat: A Survey of Growers’ Samples between 2007 and 2014 Shows Strong Year and Minor Geographic Effects

Agroscope, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich, Switzerland
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, Via Mangiagalli 25, 20133 Milano, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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To assess the occurrence of Fusarium toxins in wheat in Switzerland, an eight-year survey was conducted by analysing a total of 686 harvest samples from growers using LC-MS/MS. Between 2007 and 2010, 527 samples were obtained from 17 cantons. Between 2011 and 2014, 159 samples were collected from the canton Berne. The most frequent toxins detected were deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and nivalenol (NIV). The overall mean DON content in all samples was 607 µg/kg, and 11% exceeded the European limit for unprocessed cereals for foodstuffs (1250 µg/kg). For ZEA (mean 39 µg/kg), 7% exceeded the respective limit (100 µg/kg), and the mean content of NIV (no limit established) was 15 µg/kg. Between the years, the ratio of mycotoxin-contaminated samples ranged between 52% and 98% for DON, 9% and 43% for ZEA and 0% and 49% for NIV. The yearly mean contents varied substantially between 68 and 1310 µg/kg for DON, 5 and 56 µg/kg for ZEA and 6 and 29 µg/kg for NIV. The geographic origin showed a significant effect on DON and ZEA contamination, but was inconsistent between the years. This study has shown that the majority of Swiss-produced wheat is, in terms of Fusarium toxins, fit for human consumption and feed purposes. Nevertheless, depending on the year, high toxin contents can be expected, an issue that growers, cereal collection centres and the food industry have to deal with to ensure food and feed safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin survey; wheat; Fusarium; trichothecene; zearalenone; food safety; Switzerland mycotoxin survey; wheat; Fusarium; trichothecene; zearalenone; food safety; Switzerland

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vogelgsang, S.; Musa, T.; Bänziger, I.; Kägi, A.; Bucheli, T.D.; Wettstein, F.E.; Pasquali, M.; Forrer, H.-R. Fusarium Mycotoxins in Swiss Wheat: A Survey of Growers’ Samples between 2007 and 2014 Shows Strong Year and Minor Geographic Effects. Toxins 2017, 9, 246.

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