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Toxins 2017, 9(6), 175; doi:10.3390/toxins9060175

Potential Use of Chemoprotectants against the Toxic Effects of Cyanotoxins: A Review

1
Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla 41012, Spain
2
Marine and Environmental Research Center–CIIMAR/CIMAR, Porto University, Porto 4050-123, Portugal
3
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Porto University, Porto 4069-007, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miquel Lürling
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [384 KB, uploaded 26 May 2017]

Abstract

Cyanobacterial toxins, particularly microcystins (MCs) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), are responsible for toxic effects in humans and wildlife. In order to counteract or prevent their toxicity, various strategies have been followed, such as the potential application of chemoprotectants. A review of the main substances evaluated for this aim, as well as the doses and their influence on cyanotoxin-induced toxicity, has been performed. A search of the literature shows that research on MCs is much more abundant than research on CYN. Among chemoprotectants, antioxidant compounds are the most extensively studied, probably because it is well known that oxidative stress is one of the toxic mechanisms common to both toxins. In this group, vitamin E seems to have the strongest protectant effect for both cyanotoxins. Transport inhibitors have also been studied in the case of MCs, as CYN cellular uptake is not yet fully elucidated. Further research is needed because systematic studies are lacking. Moreover, more realistic exposure scenarios, including cyanotoxin mixtures and the concomitant use of chemoprotectants, should be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystins; cylindrospermopsin; chemoprotection; transport inhibitors; antioxidant substances microcystins; cylindrospermopsin; chemoprotection; transport inhibitors; antioxidant substances
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Guzmán-Guillén, R.; Puerto, M.; Gutiérrez-Praena, D.; Prieto, A.I.; Pichardo, S.; Jos, Á.; Campos, A.; Vasconcelos, V.; Cameán, A.M. Potential Use of Chemoprotectants against the Toxic Effects of Cyanotoxins: A Review. Toxins 2017, 9, 175.

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