Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Patterns of Gene Expression in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Neonates, Challenged with Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1 and Cry34/35Ab1, Based on Next-Generation Sequencing
Previous Article in Journal
Extensive Evolution of Cereal Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins Translates into Unique Structural Features, Activation Mechanisms, and Physiological Roles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(4), 121; doi:10.3390/toxins9040121

Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops

1
Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre CAS, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak Agricultural University, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
3
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juan Ferré and Baltasar Escriche
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Insecticidal Bacterial Toxins in Modern Agriculture)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1354 KB, uploaded 29 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of genetically modified (GM) crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected. Modeling based on the gradual elimination of the least abundant species, or of the fewest categories of functional traits, showed that a trait-based analysis of the most common species may be suitable for PMEM. Species represented by fewer than 230 individuals (all localities combined) should be excluded and species with an abundance higher than 600 should be preserved for statistical analyses. Sixteen species, representing 15 categories of functional traits fulfill these criteria, are typical dominant inhabitants of agroecocoenoses in Central Europe, are easy to determine, and their functional classification is well known. The effect of sampling year is negligible when at least four samples are collected during maize development beginning from 1 April. The recommended methodology fulfills PMEM requirements, including applicability to large-scale use. However, suggested thresholds of carabid comparability should be verified before definitive conclusions are drawn. View Full-Text
Keywords: Carabidae; surrogate; post-market environmental monitoring; PMEM; risk assessment; GM maize; functional trait Carabidae; surrogate; post-market environmental monitoring; PMEM; risk assessment; GM maize; functional trait
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Skoková Habuštová, O.; Svobodová, Z.; Cagáň, Ľ.; Sehnal, F. Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops. Toxins 2017, 9, 121.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top