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Toxins 2017, 9(4), 121; doi:10.3390/toxins9040121

Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops

Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre CAS, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak Agricultural University, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juan Ferré and Baltasar Escriche
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Insecticidal Bacterial Toxins in Modern Agriculture)
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Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of genetically modified (GM) crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected. Modeling based on the gradual elimination of the least abundant species, or of the fewest categories of functional traits, showed that a trait-based analysis of the most common species may be suitable for PMEM. Species represented by fewer than 230 individuals (all localities combined) should be excluded and species with an abundance higher than 600 should be preserved for statistical analyses. Sixteen species, representing 15 categories of functional traits fulfill these criteria, are typical dominant inhabitants of agroecocoenoses in Central Europe, are easy to determine, and their functional classification is well known. The effect of sampling year is negligible when at least four samples are collected during maize development beginning from 1 April. The recommended methodology fulfills PMEM requirements, including applicability to large-scale use. However, suggested thresholds of carabid comparability should be verified before definitive conclusions are drawn. View Full-Text
Keywords: Carabidae; surrogate; post-market environmental monitoring; PMEM; risk assessment; GM maize; functional trait Carabidae; surrogate; post-market environmental monitoring; PMEM; risk assessment; GM maize; functional trait

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Skoková Habuštová, O.; Svobodová, Z.; Cagáň, Ľ.; Sehnal, F. Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops. Toxins 2017, 9, 121.

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