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Toxins 2017, 9(3), 108; doi:10.3390/toxins9030108

Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
Agroscope, Biosafety Research Group, 8046 Zurich, Switzerland
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130124, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juan Ferré and Baltasar Escriche
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Insecticidal Bacterial Toxins in Modern Agriculture)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [261 KB, uploaded 16 March 2017]


Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bt maize; Cry1Ie; non-target effects; ladybirds; environmental risk assessment Bt maize; Cry1Ie; non-target effects; ladybirds; environmental risk assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, Y.; Liu, Y.; Yin, X.; Romeis, J.; Song, X.; Chen, X.; Geng, L.; Peng, Y.; Li, Y. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Toxins 2017, 9, 108.

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