Next Article in Journal
Microcystin‐LR Detected in a Low Molecular Weight  Fraction from a Crude Extract of Zoanthus sociatus
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of pH and Temperature on the Stability of Fumonisins in Maize Products
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(3), 77; doi:10.3390/toxins9030077

Interaction of Type IV Toxin/Antitoxin Systems in Cryptic Prophages of Escherichia coli K-12

1
Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, Research Network for Applied Microbiology (RNAM) Center for Marine Microbiology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shin-ichi Miyoshi
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3031 KB, uploaded 1 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems are widespread in prokaryotic chromosomes and in mobile genetic elements including plasmids and prophages. The first characterized Type IV TA system CbtA/CbeA was found in cryptic prophage CP4-44 in Escherichia coli K-12. Two homologous TA loci of CbtA/CbeA also reside in cryptic prophages of E. coli K-12, YkfI/YafW in CP4-6 and YpjF/YfjZ in CP4-57. In this study, we demonstrated that YkfI and YpjF inhibited cell growth and led to the formation of “lemon-shaped” cells. Prolonged overproduction of YkfI led to the formation of “gourd-shaped” cells and immediate cell lysis. YafW and YfjZ can neutralize the toxicity of YkfI or YpjF. Furthermore, we found that YkfI and YpjF interacted with cell division protein FtsZ in E. coli, but ectopic expression in Pseudomonas and Shewanella did not cause the formation of “lemon-shaped” cells. Moreover, deletion of all of the three toxin genes together decreased resistance to oxidative stress and deletion of the antitoxin genes increased early biofilm formation. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the homologous Type IV TA systems in E. coli may target cell division protein FtsZ in E. coli and may have different physiological functions in E. coli. View Full-Text
Keywords: type IV toxin/antitoxin; prophage; Escherichia coli type IV toxin/antitoxin; prophage; Escherichia coli
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wen, Z.; Wang, P.; Sun, C.; Guo, Y.; Wang, X. Interaction of Type IV Toxin/Antitoxin Systems in Cryptic Prophages of Escherichia coli K-12. Toxins 2017, 9, 77.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top