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Toxins 2017, 9(11), 366; doi:10.3390/toxins9110366

Differential Gene Expression Analysis of Bovine Macrophages after Exposure to the Penicillium Mycotoxins Citrinin and/or Ochratoxin A

1
Center for Animal Nutrigenomics and Applied Animal Nutrition, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY 40356, USA
2
Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc Maresca
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Ochratoxins-Collection)
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Abstract

Mycotoxins produced by fungal species commonly contaminate livestock feedstuffs, jeopardizing their health and diminishing production. Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by Penicillium spp. and commonly co-occur. Both CIT and OTA can modulate immune response by inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, altering cell metabolism, and triggering programmed cell death. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sublethal exposure (i.e., the concentration that inhibited cell proliferation by 25% (IC25)) to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA on the bovine macrophage transcriptome. Gene expression was determined using the Affymetrix Bovine Genome Array. After 6 h of exposure to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEG), respectively, was as follows: 1471 genes (822 up-regulated, 649 down-regulated), 5094 genes (2611 up-regulated, 2483 down-regulated) and 7624 genes (3984 up-regulated, 3640 down-regulated). Of these, 179 genes (88 up-regulated, 91 down-regulated) were commonly expressed between treatments. After 24 h of exposure to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA the number of DEG, respectively, was as follows: 3230 genes (1631 up-regulated, 1599 down-regulated), 8558 genes (4167 up-regulated, 4391 down-regulated), and 10,927 genes (6284 up-regulated, 4643 down-regulated). Of these, 770 genes (247 up-regulated, 523 down-regulated) were commonly expressed between treatments. The categorization of common biological functions and pathway analysis suggests that the IC25 of both CIT and OTA, or their combination, induces cellular oxidative stress, a slowing of cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Collectively, these effects contribute to inhibiting bovine macrophage proliferation. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxinA; citrinin; mixture toxicity; bovine macrophage; gene expression; microarray ochratoxinA; citrinin; mixture toxicity; bovine macrophage; gene expression; microarray
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brennan, K.M.; Oh, S.-Y.; Yiannikouris, A.; Graugnard, D.E.; Karrow, N.A. Differential Gene Expression Analysis of Bovine Macrophages after Exposure to the Penicillium Mycotoxins Citrinin and/or Ochratoxin A. Toxins 2017, 9, 366.

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