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Toxins 2017, 9(10), 307; doi:10.3390/toxins9100307

Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a Disintegrin-Like Cys-Rich Protein Isolated from the Venom of the Snake Rhinocerophis alternatus, Stimulates Angiogenesis and Antioxidant Defenses in the Liver of Freshwater Fish, Hoplias malabaricus

Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos, SP 13565-905, Brazil
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Academic Editor: Hang Fai (Henry) Kwok
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom and Toxin as Targeted Therapy)
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Abstract

Alternagin-C (ALT-C) is a disintegrin-like protein isolated from Rhinocerophis alternatus snake venom, which induces endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic effects of a single dose of alternagin-C (0.5 mg·kg−1, via intra-arterial) on oxidative stress biomarkers, histological alterations, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, and the degree of vascularization in the liver of the freshwater fish traíra, Hoplias malabaricus, seven days after the initiation of therapy. ALT-C treatment increased VEGF levels and hepatic angiogenesis. ALT-C also enhanced hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, decreasing the basal oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the fish liver. These results indicate that ALT-C improved hepatic tissue and may play a crucial role in tissue regeneration mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: disintegrin; blood vessel formation; VEGF; antioxidant enzymes; oxidative stress biomarkers disintegrin; blood vessel formation; VEGF; antioxidant enzymes; oxidative stress biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Monteiro, D.A.; Selistre-de-Araújo, H.S.; Tavares, D.; Fernandes, M.N.; Kalinin, A.L.; Rantin, F.T. Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a Disintegrin-Like Cys-Rich Protein Isolated from the Venom of the Snake Rhinocerophis alternatus, Stimulates Angiogenesis and Antioxidant Defenses in the Liver of Freshwater Fish, Hoplias malabaricus. Toxins 2017, 9, 307.

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