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Toxins 2017, 9(1), 3; doi:10.3390/toxins9010003

The Pathogenetic Effect of Natural and Bacterial Toxins on Atopic Dermatitis

Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, 33, Duryugongwon-ro 17-gil, Nam-gu, Daegu 42472, Korea
School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Panorama Avenue, Bathurst NSW 2795, Australia
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, 33, Duryugongwon-ro 17-gil, Nam-gu, Daegu 42472, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vernon L. Tesh
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1118 KB, uploaded 23 December 2016]   |  


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic skin disease that is associated with chronic, recurrent eczematous and pruritic lesions at the flexural folds caused by interacting factors related to environmental and immune system changes. AD results in dry skin, and immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions to foods and environmental allergens. While steroids and anti-histamines temporarily relieve the symptoms of AD, the possibility of side effects from pharmacological interventions remains. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms for AD have not been clarified. A study of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) established the role of its toxins in the pathogenesis of AD. Approximately 90% of patients with AD experience S. aureus colonization and up to 50%–60% of the colonizing S. aureus is toxin-producing. Any damage to the protective skin barrier allows for the entry of invading allergens and pathogens that further drive the pathogenesis of AD. Some natural toxins (or their components) that have therapeutic effects on AD have been studied. In addition, recent studies on inflammasomes as one component of the innate immune system have been carried out. Additionally, studies on the close relationship between the activation of inflammasomes and toxins in AD have been reported. This review highlights the literature that discusses the pathogenesis of AD, the role of toxins in AD, and the positive and negative effects of toxins on AD. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the role of inflammasomes in AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: atopic dermatitis; toxin; pathogenesis atopic dermatitis; toxin; pathogenesis

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Park, K.-D.; Pak, S.C.; Park, K.-K. The Pathogenetic Effect of Natural and Bacterial Toxins on Atopic Dermatitis. Toxins 2017, 9, 3.

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