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Toxins 2017, 9(1), 17; doi:10.3390/toxins9010017

Degradation of Aflatoxins by Means of Laccases from Trametes versicolor: An In Silico Insight

1
Department of Food Science, University of Parma, 43124 Parma, Italy
2
Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
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Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials. The present work dealt with the degradation of aflatoxin B1 and M1 by laccase enzymes from Trametes versicolor. The enzymes–substrate interaction for various enzyme isoforms was investigated through 3D molecular modeling techniques. Structural differences among the isoforms have been pinpointed, which may cause different patterns of interaction between aflatoxin B1 and M1. The possible formation of different products of degradation can be argued accordingly. Moreover, the laccase gamma isoform was identified as the most suitable for protein engineering aimed at ameliorating the substrate specificity. Overall, 3D modeling proved to be an effective analytical tool to assess the enzyme–substrate interaction and provided a solid foothold for supporting the search of degrading enzyme at the early stage. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; biotransformation; enzymatic detoxification; laccase; mild technologies; food safety; mycotoxins mitigation aflatoxins; biotransformation; enzymatic detoxification; laccase; mild technologies; food safety; mycotoxins mitigation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dellafiora, L.; Galaverna, G.; Reverberi, M.; Dall’Asta, C. Degradation of Aflatoxins by Means of Laccases from Trametes versicolor: An In Silico Insight. Toxins 2017, 9, 17.

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