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Toxins 2017, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/toxins9010011

Are Treated Celiac Patients at Risk for Mycotoxins? An Italian Case-Study

1
Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 49/A, Parma 43124, Italy
2
Center for Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease, Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan 20122, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Milan 20122, Italy
4
Intermediate Pediatric Care Unit, IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan 20122, Italy
5
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan 20122, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo Brera
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [973 KB, uploaded 28 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Urinary biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were evaluated in a group of celiac patients (n = 55) and in a control group of healthy subjects (n = 50) following their habitual diet. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were monitored in 105 urinary samples collected from the two groups. Dietary habits were also recorded through compilation of a seven-day weighed dietary diary. Biomarkers of mycotoxin exposure were detected in 21 celiac patients and in 15 control subjects, corresponding to about 34% of total participants. In particular, ZEN was the most detected mycotoxin among all the studied subjects with a total of 19 positive cases. Results did not show a statistically significant difference in mycotoxin exposure between the two groups, and the presence of specific mycotoxins was not related to the intake of any particular food category. Our findings suggest little urgency of specific regulation for gluten free products, although the prevalence of exposure observed in free-living diets of both celiac and healthy subjects underlines the need of a constant surveillance on mycotoxins occurrence at large. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZEN); fumonisin B1 (FB1); human urine; celiac patients deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZEN); fumonisin B1 (FB1); human urine; celiac patients
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cirlini, M.; Mazzeo, T.; Roncoroni, L.; Lombardo, V.; Elli, L.; Bardella, M.T.; Agostoni, C.; Doneda, L.; Brighenti, F.; Dall’Asta, C.; Pellegrini, N. Are Treated Celiac Patients at Risk for Mycotoxins? An Italian Case-Study. Toxins 2017, 9, 11.

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