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Open AccessCommunication
Toxins 2016, 8(9), 262; doi:10.3390/toxins8090262

The Contents of Ustiloxins A and B along with Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls

1
Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Ministry of Agriculture/Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100193, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Logrieco
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
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Abstract

Ustiloxins are cyclopeptide mycotoxins isolated from rice false smut balls (FSBs), the ball-like colonies transformed from the individual grains through the filament infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. There were no obvious relations between ustiloxin content and any of the collection areas, collection times, or average weight of each FSB. The rice false smut balls at early, middle, and late maturity stages were respectively divided into different parts (glume, chlamydospores, mycelia, and pseudoparenchyma). The highest content of ustiloxins A and B of rice FSBs was found at the early maturity stage. Both ustiloxins A and B were mainly distributed in the middle layer containing mycelia and immature chlamydospores of the FSBs. When the rice FSBs were at the early maturity stage, the total yield of ustiloxins A and B in the middle layer of each ball was 48.3 µg, which was 3.20-fold of the yield (15.1 µg) of the inner part of the ball. The rice FSBs at the early maturity stage are the appropriate materials for the production of ustiloxins A and B. View Full-Text
Keywords: ustiloxins; mycotoxin; rice false smut disease; rice false smut balls; Villosiclava virens; Ustilaginoidea virens; HPLC analysis ustiloxins; mycotoxin; rice false smut disease; rice false smut balls; Villosiclava virens; Ustilaginoidea virens; HPLC analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, X.; Fu, X.; Lin, F.; Sun, W.; Meng, J.; Wang, A.; Lai, D.; Zhou, L.; Liu, Y. The Contents of Ustiloxins A and B along with Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls. Toxins 2016, 8, 262.

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