Next Article in Journal
Insights into the Evolution of a Snake Venom Multi-Gene Family from the Genomic Organization of Echis ocellatus SVMP Genes
Previous Article in Journal
Toxin-Antitoxin Modules Are Pliable Switches Activated by Multiple Protease Pathways
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(7), 215; doi:10.3390/toxins8070215

Respiratory Effects of Sarafotoxins from the Venom of Different Atractaspis Genus Snake Species

1
Service de Réanimation Polyvalente, Pôle d’Anesthésie Réanimations, CHU Amiens F-80054 Amiens cedex, France
2
Unité INSERM U1088, University of Picardie Jules-Verne, CURS site CHU, F-80054 Amiens cedex, France
3
Unité INSERM U1105, University of Picardie Jules-Verne, CURS site CHU, F-80054 Amiens cedex & Explorations Fonctionnelles Pédiatriques, CHU Amiens F-80054 Amiens cedex, France
4
CEA, iBiTec-S, Service d’Ingénierie Moléculaire des Protéines (SIMOPRO), CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
5
CEA, iMETI, Service d’Immunologie des Infections Virales et des Maladies Auto-Immunes (U1184), CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, F-92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Holger Scheib
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 11 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [506 KB, uploaded 11 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Sarafotoxins (SRTX) are endothelin-like peptides extracted from the venom of snakes belonging to the Atractaspididae family. A recent in vivo study on anesthetized and ventilated animals showed that sarafotoxin-b (SRTX-b), extracted from the venom of Atractaspis engaddensis, decreases cardiac output by inducing left ventricular dysfunction while sarafotoxin-m (SRTX-m), extracted from the venom of Atractaspis microlepidota microlepidota, induces right ventricular dysfunction with increased airway pressure. The aim of the present experimental study was to compare the respiratory effects of SRTX-m and SRTX-b. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. They received either a 1 LD50 IV bolus of SRTX-b (n = 5) or 1 LD50 of SRTX-m (n = 5). The low-frequency forced oscillation technique was used to measure respiratory impedance. Airway resistance (Raw), parenchymal damping (G) and elastance (H) were determined from impedance data, before and 5 min after SRTX injection. SRTX-m and SRTX-b injections induced acute hypoxia and metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap. Both toxins markedly increased Raw, G and H, but with a much greater effect of SRTX-b on H, which may have been due to pulmonary edema in addition to bronchoconstriction. Therefore, despite their structural analogy, these two toxins exert different effects on respiratory function. These results emphasize the role of the C-terminal extension in the in vivo effect of these toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Atractaspis; long sarafotoxins; respiratory mechanics; forced oscillation technique; hysterisivity Atractaspis; long sarafotoxins; respiratory mechanics; forced oscillation technique; hysterisivity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Malaquin, S.; Bayat, S.; Abou Arab, O.; Mourier, G.; Lorne, E.; Kamel, S.; Dupont, H.; Ducancel, F.; Mahjoub, Y. Respiratory Effects of Sarafotoxins from the Venom of Different Atractaspis Genus Snake Species. Toxins 2016, 8, 215.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top