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Toxins 2016, 8(5), 123; doi:10.3390/toxins8050123

Deciphering the Anti-Aflatoxinogenic Properties of Eugenol Using a Large-Scale q-PCR Approach

1
Toxalim, Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP Purpan, UPS, Toulouse, France
2
Laboratoire de Mycologie et Sécurité des Aliments (LMSA), Département de Biochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Saint-Joseph, P.O. Box 11-514, Beirut 1107 2050, Lebanon
3
Applied Mycology Group, School of Energy, Environment and AgriFood, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire, UK
4
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Natural Sciences and Earth, Faculty of Sciences I, Lebanese University, Hadath Campus, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut, Lebanon
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shohei Sakuda
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1763 KB, uploaded 26 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Produced by several species of Aspergillus, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin contaminating many crops worldwide. The utilization of fungicides is currently one of the most common methods; nevertheless, their use is not environmentally or economically sound. Thus, the use of natural compounds able to block aflatoxinogenesis could represent an alternative strategy to limit food and feed contamination. For instance, eugenol, a 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol present in many essential oils, has been identified as an anti-aflatoxin molecule. However, its precise mechanism of action has yet to be clarified. The production of AFB1 is associated with the expression of a 70 kB cluster, and not less than 21 enzymatic reactions are necessary for its production. Based on former empirical data, a molecular tool composed of 60 genes targeting 27 genes of aflatoxin B1 cluster and 33 genes encoding the main regulatory factors potentially involved in its production, was developed. We showed that AFB1 inhibition in Aspergillus flavus following eugenol addition at 0.5 mM in a Malt Extract Agar (MEA) medium resulted in a complete inhibition of the expression of all but one gene of the AFB1 biosynthesis cluster. This transcriptomic effect followed a down-regulation of the complex composed by the two internal regulatory factors, AflR and AflS. This phenomenon was also influenced by an over-expression of veA and mtfA, two genes that are directly linked to AFB1 cluster regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aflatoxin B1; Aspergillus flavus; aflatoxinogenesis; molecular tool; gene regulation; eugenol Aflatoxin B1; Aspergillus flavus; aflatoxinogenesis; molecular tool; gene regulation; eugenol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Caceres, I.; El Khoury, R.; Medina, Á.; Lippi, Y.; Naylies, C.; Atoui, A.; El Khoury, A.; Oswald, I.P.; Bailly, J.-D.; Puel, O. Deciphering the Anti-Aflatoxinogenic Properties of Eugenol Using a Large-Scale q-PCR Approach. Toxins 2016, 8, 123.

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