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Toxins 2016, 8(5), 125; doi:10.3390/toxins8050125

Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins

1
Agroinnova—Centre of Competence for the Innovation in the Agro-Environmental Sector, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini, 2 Grugliasco, Turin 10095, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Science (DISAFA), University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini, 2 Grugliasco, Turin 10095, Italy
3
Tecnogranda SpA, Via G.B. Conte, 19 Dronero, Cuneo 12025, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shohei Sakuda
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
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Abstract

Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N2, 0.1% O2 and 1% O2, 21% O2), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB1 of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B1 was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G1. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; cold atmospheric pressure plasma; detoxification; hazelnut; nitrogen; nuts; temperature; time aflatoxins; cold atmospheric pressure plasma; detoxification; hazelnut; nitrogen; nuts; temperature; time
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Siciliano, I.; Spadaro, D.; Prelle, A.; Vallauri, D.; Cavallero, M.C.; Garibaldi, A.; Gullino, M.L. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins. Toxins 2016, 8, 125.

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