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Toxins 2016, 8(3), 69; doi:10.3390/toxins8030069

The Ins and Outs of Anthrax Toxin

Faculty of Life Sciences, Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland
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Academic Editor: Shihui Liu
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Anthrax Toxins)
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Abstract

Anthrax is a severe, although rather rare, infectious disease that is caused by the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The infectious form is the spore and the major virulence factors of the bacterium are its poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule and the tripartite anthrax toxin. The discovery of the anthrax toxin receptors in the early 2000s has allowed in-depth studies on the mechanisms of anthrax toxin cellular entry and translocation from the endocytic compartment to the cytoplasm. The toxin generally hijacks the endocytic pathway of CMG2 and TEM8, the two anthrax toxin receptors, in order to reach the endosomes. From there, the pore-forming subunit of the toxin inserts into endosomal membranes and enables translocation of the two catalytic subunits. Insertion of the pore-forming unit preferentially occurs in intraluminal vesicles rather than the limiting membrane of the endosome, leading to the translocation of the enzymatic subunits in the lumen of these vesicles. This has important consequences that will be discussed. Ultimately, the toxins reach the cytosol where they act on their respective targets. Target modification has severe consequences on cell behavior, in particular on cells of the immune system, allowing the spread of the bacterium, in severe cases leading to host death. Here we will review the literature on anthrax disease with a focus on the structure of the toxin, how it enters cells and its immunological effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthrax toxin; endocytosis; protein structure; anthrax toxin receptors; cancer treatment anthrax toxin; endocytosis; protein structure; anthrax toxin receptors; cancer treatment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Friebe, S.; van der Goot, F.G.; Bürgi, J. The Ins and Outs of Anthrax Toxin. Toxins 2016, 8, 69.

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