PhTx3-4, a Spider Toxin Calcium Channel Blocker, Reduces NMDA-Induced Injury of the Retina
AbstractThe in vivo neuroprotective effect of PhTx3-4, a spider toxin N-P/Q calcium channel blocker, was studied in a rat model of NMDA-induced injury of the retina. NMDA (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate)-induced retinal injury in rats reduced the b-wave amplitude by 62% ± 3.6%, indicating the severity of the insult. PhTx3-4 treatment increased the amplitude of the b-wave, which was almost equivalent to the control retinas that were not submitted to injury. The PhTx3-4 functional protection of the retinas recorded on the ERG also was observed in the neuroprotection of retinal cells. NMDA-induced injury reduced live cells in the retina layers and the highest reduction, 84%, was in the ganglion cell layer. Notably, PhTx3-4 treatment caused a remarkable reduction of dead cells in the retina layers, and the highest neuroprotective effect was in the ganglion cells layer. NMDA-induced cytotoxicity of the retina increased the release of glutamate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. PhTx3-4 treatment reduced glutamate release, ROS production and oxidative stress measured by malondialdehyde. Thus, we presented for the first time evidence of in vivo neuroprotection from NMDA-induced retinal injury by PhTx3-4 (-ctenitoxin-Pn3a), a spider toxin that blocks N-P/Q calcium channels. View Full-Text
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Binda, N.S.; Porto Petruceli Carayon, C.; Agostini, R.M.; do Nascimento Pinheiro, A.C.; Nascimento Cordeiro, M.; Romano Silva, M.A.; Figueira Silva, J.; Rita Pereira, E.M.; da Silva Junior, C.A.; de Castro Junior, C.J.; Sena Guimarães, A.L.; Gomez, M.V. PhTx3-4, a Spider Toxin Calcium Channel Blocker, Reduces NMDA-Induced Injury of the Retina. Toxins 2016, 8, 70.
Binda NS, Porto Petruceli Carayon C, Agostini RM, do Nascimento Pinheiro AC, Nascimento Cordeiro M, Romano Silva MA, Figueira Silva J, Rita Pereira EM, da Silva Junior CA, de Castro Junior CJ, Sena Guimarães AL, Gomez MV. PhTx3-4, a Spider Toxin Calcium Channel Blocker, Reduces NMDA-Induced Injury of the Retina. Toxins. 2016; 8(3):70.Chicago/Turabian Style
Binda, Nancy S.; Porto Petruceli Carayon, Charles; Agostini, Rafael M.; do Nascimento Pinheiro, Ana C.; Nascimento Cordeiro, Marta; Romano Silva, Marco A.; Figueira Silva, Juliana; Rita Pereira, Elizete M.; da Silva Junior, Claudio A.; de Castro Junior, Célio J.; Sena Guimarães, Andre L.; Gomez, Marcus V. 2016. "PhTx3-4, a Spider Toxin Calcium Channel Blocker, Reduces NMDA-Induced Injury of the Retina." Toxins 8, no. 3: 70.
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