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Toxins 2016, 8(12), 376; doi:10.3390/toxins8120376

Modified Lipids and Lipoproteins in Chronic Kidney Disease: A New Class of Uremic Toxins

1
CarMeN, INSERM U1060, INRA U1397, INSA de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, University of Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France
2
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Nephrology, Hôpital E. Herriot, F-69003 Lyon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raymond Vanholder
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and deep modifications in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. First, many oxidized lipids accumulate in CKD and were shown to exert toxic effects on cells and tissues. These lipids are known to interfere with many cell functions and to be pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory, especially in the cardiovascular system. Some, like F2-isoprostanes, are directly correlated with CKD progression. Their accumulation, added to their noxious effects, rendered their nomination as uremic toxins credible. Similarly, lipoproteins are deeply altered by CKD modifications, either in their metabolism or composition. These impairments lead to impaired effects of HDL on their normal effectors and may strongly participate in accelerated atherosclerosis and failure of statins in end-stage renal disease patients. This review describes the impact of oxidized lipids and other modifications in the natural history of CKD and its complications. Moreover, this review focuses on the modifications of lipoproteins and their impact on the emergence of cardiovascular diseases in CKD as well as the appropriateness of considering them as actual mediators of uremic toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: uremic toxin; oxidative stress; lipid; lipoprotein uremic toxin; oxidative stress; lipid; lipoprotein
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Florens, N.; Calzada, C.; Lyasko, E.; Juillard, L.; Soulage, C.O. Modified Lipids and Lipoproteins in Chronic Kidney Disease: A New Class of Uremic Toxins. Toxins 2016, 8, 376.

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