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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 339; doi:10.3390/toxins8110339

N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY)—Major Metabolite of Nicotinamide: An Update on an Old Uremic Toxin

1
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM U-1088), Jules Verne University of Picardie, Amiens 80000, France
2
Department of Pharmacy, Amiens University Medical Center, Amiens 80000, France
3
Clinical Research Centre and Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Amiens University Medical Center, Amiens 80000, France
4
Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Amiens University Medical Center, Amiens 80000, France
5
Biochemistry Laboratory, Amiens University Medical Center, Amiens 80000, France
6
Laboratory of Glycochimie, des Antimicrobiens et des Agroressouces, Unité Mixte de Recherche—Centre National de la Recherché Scientifique (UMR CNRS) 7378, UFR de Pharmacy, Jules Verne University of Picardie, Amiens 80000, France
7
Division of Nephrology, Ambroise Paré University Medical Center, Assistance Publique—Hôpitaux de Paris APHP, Boulogne, Billancourt, Paris 92100, France
8
INSERM U1018, Team 5, CESP (Centre de Recherche en Épidémiologie et Santé des Populations), Paris-Saclay University, and Paris Ouest-Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (UVSQ), Villejuif 94800, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: R. Vanholder
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [971 KB, uploaded 15 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY, a major metabolite of nicotinamide, NAM) was recently identified as a uremic toxin. Recent interventional trials using NAM to treat high levels of phosphorus in end-stage renal disease have highlighted new potential uremic toxicities of 2PY. In the context of uremia, the accumulation of 2PY could be harmful—perhaps by inhibiting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity. Here, we review recently published data on 2PY’s metabolism and toxicological profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide; uremic toxin; nicotinamide; niacin; chronic kidney disease N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide; uremic toxin; nicotinamide; niacin; chronic kidney disease
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Lenglet, A.; Liabeuf, S.; Bodeau, S.; Louvet, L.; Mary, A.; Boullier, A.; Lemaire-Hurtel, A.S.; Jonet, A.; Sonnet, P.; Kamel, S.; Massy, Z.A. N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY)—Major Metabolite of Nicotinamide: An Update on an Old Uremic Toxin. Toxins 2016, 8, 339.

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