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Toxins 2016, 8(1), 9; doi:10.3390/toxins8010009

Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5470, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina
Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Jaime Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen P. Mackessy
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 17 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 25 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venomics, Venom Proteomics and Venom Transcriptomics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3368 KB, uploaded 25 December 2015]   |  


Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bothrops diporus venom; venomics; snake venom proteome; antivenomics; mass spectrometry Bothrops diporus venom; venomics; snake venom proteome; antivenomics; mass spectrometry

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gay, C.; Sanz, L.; Calvete, J.J.; Pla, D. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina. Toxins 2016, 8, 9.

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