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Toxins 2016, 8(1), 8; doi:10.3390/toxins8010008

Occurrence and Seasonal Variations of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Commercial Clam Species along the Coast of Jiangsu, China

1
School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicines, Xianlin Avenue No. 138, Nanjing 210023, China
2
Marine Drug Research and Development Center of Jiangsu Province, Xianlin Avenue No. 138, Nanjing 210023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Botana
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 25 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1646 KB, uploaded 25 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Recent studies have examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in shellfish and toxic algae worldwide, but the occurrence and seasonal variations of LMTs in commercial clams (including Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Meretrix meretrix, and Cyclina sinensis) at their major culturing area in Jiangsu, China, remain largely unexplored. In this study, a new solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with an ultra-fast liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UFLC-TQ-MS) method was developed to determine the presence of 10 typical LMTs (okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxins (YTXs), azaspiracids (AZA1-3), pectenotoxins (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), dinophysistoxins (DTX1&2), and spirolides (SPX1)) in the aforementioned four clam matrices. After confirmation of its sensitivity and precision, this method was used to evaluate the amounts of LMTs in clam samples harvested in five aquaculture zones of the Jiangsu coastal area. Monthly variations of GYM, PTX2, OA, and DTX1&2 in 400 clam samples from the sample areas were determined from January 2014 through August 2015. Peak values were observed during May and August. This is the first systematic report of LMTs detected in clam samples harvested in Jiangsu. Follow-up research and the implementation of protective measures are needed to ensure the safety of clams harvested in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipophilic marine toxins; UFLC-TQ-MS; clams; seasonal variations; Jiangsu Province lipophilic marine toxins; UFLC-TQ-MS; clams; seasonal variations; Jiangsu Province
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.-Z.; Cheng, Y.; Li, N.; Wen, H.-M.; Liu, R.; Shan, C.-X.; Chai, C.; Wu, H. Occurrence and Seasonal Variations of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Commercial Clam Species along the Coast of Jiangsu, China. Toxins 2016, 8, 8.

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