Next Article in Journal
Detection of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisins B2 and B3 in Corn by High-Resolution LC-Orbitrap MS
Previous Article in Journal
Scorpion Toxin, BmP01, Induces Pain by Targeting TRPV1 Channel
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(9), 3688-3699; doi:10.3390/toxins7093688

Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes

Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP—Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brasil
Deceased on 8 September 2013.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yukako Fujinaga
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 26 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [475 KB, uploaded 17 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%), seg (64.5%) and sei (67.5%). The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02), and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly producing the non-classical enterotoxins seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus haemolyticus; enterotoxins; cytotoxins Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus haemolyticus; enterotoxins; cytotoxins
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pinheiro, L.; Brito, C.I.; de Oliveira, A.; Martins, P.Y.F.; Pereira, V.C.; da Cunha, M.L.R.S. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes. Toxins 2015, 7, 3688-3699.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top