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Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3257-3266; doi:10.3390/toxins7083257

Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion

Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
Academic Editor: Shohei Sakuda
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
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Abstract

Several atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates, including some being used as biocontrol agents, and one toxigenic isolate were surveyed for the ability to produce extracellular xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases. All of the tested isolates displayed good production of endoxylanases when grown on a medium utilizing larch xylan as a sole carbon substrate. Four of the tested isolates produced reasonably high levels of esterase activity, while the atoxigenic biocontrol agent NRRL 21882 isolate esterase level was significantly lower than the others. Atoxigenic A. flavus isolates 19, 22, K49, AF36 (the latter two are biocontrol agents) and toxigenic AF13 produced copious levels of pectinolytic activity when grown on a pectin medium. The pectinolytic activity levels of the atoxigenic A. flavus 17 and NRRL 21882 isolates were significantly lower than the other tested isolates. In addition, A. flavus isolates that displayed high levels of pectinolytic activity in the plate assay produced high levels of endopolygalacturonase (pectinase) P2c, as ascertained by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Isolate NRRL 21882 displayed low levels of both pectinase P2c and pectin methyl esterase. A. flavus appears capable of producing these hydrolytic enzymes irrespective of aflatoxin production. This ability of atoxigenic isolates to produce xylanolytic and pectinolytic hydrolases mimics that of toxigenic isolates and, therefore, contributes to the ability of atoxigenic isolates to occupy the same niche as A. flavus toxigenic isolates. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus flavus; atoxigenic isolate; biocontrol agent; xylanolytic hydrolases; pectinolytic hydrolases Aspergillus flavus; atoxigenic isolate; biocontrol agent; xylanolytic hydrolases; pectinolytic hydrolases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mellon, J.E. Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion. Toxins 2015, 7, 3257-3266.

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