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Toxins 2015, 7(8), 2906-2917; doi:10.3390/toxins7082906

Cross-Excitation in Peripheral Sensory Ganglia Associated with Pain Transmission

1
Department of Stomatognathic Function and Occlusal Reconstruction, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan
2
Department of Oral Function and Anatomy, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Advanced Research Center for Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, Okayama University Dental School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8525, Japan
3
Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8525, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michel R. Popoff
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Botulinum Toxins on Human Pain)
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Abstract

Despite the absence of synaptic contacts, cross-excitation of neurons in sensory ganglia during signal transmission is considered to be chemically mediated and appears increased in chronic pain states. In this study, we modulated neurotransmitter release in sensory neurons by direct application of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A) to sensory ganglia in an animal model of neuropathic pain and evaluated the effect of this treatment on nocifensive. Unilateral sciatic nerve entrapment (SNE) reduced the ipsilateral hindpaw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and reduced hindpaw withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation. Direct application of BoNT/A to the ipsilateral L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was localized in the cell bodies of the DRG and reversed the SNE-induced decreases in withdrawal thresholds within 2 days of BoNT/A administration. Results from this study suggest that neurotransmitter release within sensory ganglia is involved in the regulation of pain-related signal transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin; mechanical allodynia; dorsal root ganglion; transmitter release botulinum toxin; mechanical allodynia; dorsal root ganglion; transmitter release
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Omoto, K.; Maruhama, K.; Terayama, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Matsushita, O.; Sugimoto, T.; Oguma, K.; Matsuka, Y. Cross-Excitation in Peripheral Sensory Ganglia Associated with Pain Transmission. Toxins 2015, 7, 2906-2917.

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