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Toxins 2015, 7(8), 2872-2887; doi:10.3390/toxins7082872

Partial Characterization of Venom from the Colombian Spider Phoneutria Boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae)

1
Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Alimentarias, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín 050010, Colombia
2
Programa de Ofidismo/Escorpionismo, Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Alimentarias, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín 050010, Colombia
3
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Medellín 050010, Colombia
4
Unidad de espectrometría de masas, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín 050010, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard Lewis
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

We report on the first studies on the characterization of venom from Phoneutria boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae) (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897), done with Colombian species. After the electrostimulation extraction process, the venom showed physicochemical properties corresponding to a colorless and water-soluble liquid with a density of 0.86 mg/mL and 87% aqueous content. P. boliviensis venom and RP-HPLC fractions showed hemolytic activity and hydrolyzed the synthetic substrate 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy-benzoic acid, indicating the presence of phospholipases A2 enzymes. The electrophoretic profile showed an important protein content with molecular masses below 14 kDa, and differences between male and female protein content were also revealed. The RP-HPLC venom profile exposes differences between males and female content consistent with the electrophoretic profile. Five fractions collected from the RP-HPLC displayed significant larvicidal activity. Mass analysis indicates the presence of peptides ranging from 1047.71 to 3278.07 Da. Two peptides, Ctenitoxin-Pb48 and Ctenitoxin-Pb53, were partially identified using HPLC-nESI-MS/MS, which showed a high homology with other Ctenitoxins (family Tx3) from Phoneutria nigriventer, Phoneutria keyserlingi and Phoneutria reidyi affecting voltage-gated calcium receptors (Cav 1, 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3) and NMDA-glutamate receptors. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phoneutria boliviensis; ctenidae; RP-HPLC; insecticidal activity; mass analysis; proteomic analysis; phospholipases Phoneutria boliviensis; ctenidae; RP-HPLC; insecticidal activity; mass analysis; proteomic analysis; phospholipases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Estrada-Gomez, S.; Muñoz, L.J.V.; Lanchero, P.; Latorre, C.S. Partial Characterization of Venom from the Colombian Spider Phoneutria Boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae). Toxins 2015, 7, 2872-2887.

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