Next Article in Journal
Proteasome as a Molecular Target of Microcystin-LR
Next Article in Special Issue
Editorial on the Special Issue “Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges”
Previous Article in Journal
Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in the Seasonal Distribution of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Western Lake Erie from 2002–2014
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2198-2220; doi:10.3390/toxins7062198

Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants

1
Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA
2
Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water, Technical Support Center, USEPA, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
3
Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Lake Superior State University, Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783, USA
4
Lumigen Instrument Center, Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elizabeth D. Hilborn
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [865 KB, uploaded 12 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC), as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; microcystin; anatoxin-a; cylindrospermopsin; conventional drinking water treatment cyanobacteria; microcystin; anatoxin-a; cylindrospermopsin; conventional drinking water treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Szlag, D.C.; Sinclair, J.L.; Southwell, B.; Westrick, J.A. Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants. Toxins 2015, 7, 2198-2220.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top