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Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2188-2197; doi:10.3390/toxins7062188

Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

1
Animal Nutrition Program, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad 45500, Pakistan
2
Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenzstrasse 20, Tulln A-3430, Austria
3
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, Vienna 1210, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 22 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [204 KB, uploaded 12 June 2015]

Abstract

Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake. View Full-Text
Keywords: cattle; cottonseed; toxicity; mycotoxin cattle; cottonseed; toxicity; mycotoxin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yunus, A.W.; Sulyok, M.; Böhm, J. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems. Toxins 2015, 7, 2188-2197.

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