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Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2135-2144; doi:10.3390/toxins7062135

Application of Microwave Irradiation and Heat to Improve Gliadin Detection and Ricin ELISA Throughput with Food Samples

1
Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA
2
Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Anfossi
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [599 KB, uploaded 11 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

The utility of microwave irradiation to accelerate the onset of equilibrium and improve ELISA performance was examined using ELISAs for the detection of the plant toxin ricin and gliadin. The ricin ELISA normally requires several one hour incubations at 37 °C, a total assay time of approximately five hours, and employs a complex buffer containing PBS, Tween-20®, and non-fat milk. Different energy levels and pulse designs were compared to the use of abbreviated incubation times at 37 °C for the detection of ricin in food. The use of microwave irradiation had no significant advantage over the application of heat using an oven incubator and performed worse with some foods. In contrast, a gliadin ELISA that relied on 30 min incubation steps at room temperature and a salt-based buffer performed better upon irradiation but also displayed improvement upon incubating the microtiter plate at 37 °C. Whether microwave irradiation was advantageous compared to incubation in an oven was inconclusive. However, by abbreviating the incubation time of the ricin ELISA, it was possible to cut the assay time to less than 2 hours and still display LOD values < 10 ppb and recoveries of 78%–98%. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave; ELISA; ricin; gluten microwave; ELISA; ricin; gluten
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Garber, E.A.E.; Thole, J. Application of Microwave Irradiation and Heat to Improve Gliadin Detection and Ricin ELISA Throughput with Food Samples. Toxins 2015, 7, 2135-2144.

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