Next Article in Journal
Role of Acidic Residues in Helices TH8–TH9 in Membrane Interactions of the Diphtheria Toxin T Domain
Next Article in Special Issue
The Key Role of Peltate Glandular Trichomes in Symbiota Comprising Clavicipitaceous Fungi of the Genus Periglandula and Their Host Plants
Previous Article in Journal
Dose-Dependent Effects on Sphingoid Bases and Cytokines in Chickens Fed Diets Prepared with Fusarium Verticillioides Culture Material Containing Fumonisins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ergot Alkaloids Produced by Endophytic Fungi of the Genus Epichloë
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2015, 7(4), 1273-1302; doi:10.3390/toxins7041273

Genetics, Genomics and Evolution of Ergot Alkaloid Diversity

1
Forage Improvement Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
2
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
3
Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
4
Computer Science Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
5
Advanced Genetic Technologies Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard A. Manderville
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ergot Alkaloids: Chemistry, Biology and Toxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2908 KB, uploaded 14 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary) metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization). The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: Claviceps; Epichloë; Periglandula; Clavicipitaceae; gene clusters; chanoclavine; ergopeptine; subterminal; natural products; secondary metabolism Claviceps; Epichloë; Periglandula; Clavicipitaceae; gene clusters; chanoclavine; ergopeptine; subterminal; natural products; secondary metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Young, C.A.; Schardl, C.L.; Panaccione, D.G.; Florea, S.; Takach, J.E.; Charlton, N.D.; Moore, N.; Webb, J.S.; Jaromczyk, J. Genetics, Genomics and Evolution of Ergot Alkaloid Diversity. Toxins 2015, 7, 1273-1302.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top