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Toxins 2015, 7(3), 951-970; doi:10.3390/toxins7030951

A Review on Bradykinin-Related Peptides Isolated from Amphibian Skin Secretion

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida de Universidade, Taipa, Macau SAR, China
Natural Drug Discovery Group, School of Pharmacy, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wayne Hodgson
Received: 26 January 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [261 KB, uploaded 18 March 2015]   |  


Amphibian skin secretion has great potential for drug discovery and contributes hundreds of bioactive peptides including bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs). More than 50 BRPs have been reported in the last two decades arising from the skin secretion of amphibian species. They belong to the families Ascaphidae (1 species), Bombinatoridae (3 species), Hylidae (9 speices) and Ranidae (25 species). This paper presents the diversity of structural characteristics of BRPs with N-terminal, C-terminal extension and amino acid substitution. The further comparison of cDNA-encoded prepropeptides between the different species and families demonstrated that there are various forms of kininogen precursors to release BRPs and they constitute important evidence in amphibian evolution. The pharmacological activities of isolated BRPs exhibited unclear structure–function relationships, and therefore the scope for drug discovery and development is limited. However, their diversity shows new insights into biotechnological applications and, as a result, comprehensive and systematic studies of the physiological and pharmacological activities of BRPs from amphibian skin secretion are needed in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: amphibian; bradykinin-related peptide; biosynthetic kininogen; bradykinin agonist and antagonist amphibian; bradykinin-related peptide; biosynthetic kininogen; bradykinin agonist and antagonist

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xi, X.; Li, B.; Chen, T.; Kwok, H.F. A Review on Bradykinin-Related Peptides Isolated from Amphibian Skin Secretion. Toxins 2015, 7, 951-970.

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