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Toxins 2015, 7(3), 755-772; doi:10.3390/toxins7030755

Pokeweed Antiviral Protein: Its Cytotoxicity Mechanism and Applications in Plant Disease Resistance

Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 59 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bruce Magun and Jon D. Robertus
Received: 30 November 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Toxins)
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Abstract

Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is a 29 kDa type I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) found in pokeweed plants. Pokeweed produces different forms of PAP. This review focuses on the spring form of PAP isolated from Phytolacca americana leaves. PAP exerts its cytotoxicity by removing a specific adenine from the α-sarcin/ricin loop of the large ribosomal RNA. Besides depurination of the rRNA, PAP has additional activities that contribute to its cytotoxicity. The mechanism of PAP cytotoxicity is summarized based on evidence from the analysis of transgenic plants and the yeast model system. PAP was initially found to be anti-viral when it was co-inoculated with plant viruses onto plants. Transgenic plants expressing PAP and non-toxic PAP mutants have displayed broad-spectrum resistance to both viral and fungal infection. The mechanism of PAP-induced disease resistance in transgenic plants is summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: pokeweed antiviral protein; ribosome inactivating protein; rRNA depurination; apoptosis; ribosomal protein; broad spectrum disease resistance pokeweed antiviral protein; ribosome inactivating protein; rRNA depurination; apoptosis; ribosomal protein; broad spectrum disease resistance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Di, R.; Tumer, N.E. Pokeweed Antiviral Protein: Its Cytotoxicity Mechanism and Applications in Plant Disease Resistance. Toxins 2015, 7, 755-772.

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