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Toxins 2015, 7(3), 719-727; doi:10.3390/toxins7030719

An Optical Method for Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Level Assessment during Hemodialysis

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technomedicum, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
Department of Nephrology, Heart- and Medicine Center, Region Östergötland and Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden
Centre of Nephrology, North Estonian Medical Centre, Sütiste tee 19, 13419 Tallinn, Estonia
Institute for Molecular Cardiovascular Research, RWTH Aachen University, University Hospital, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Sheehan
Received: 18 November 2014 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 27 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremic Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [776 KB, uploaded 27 February 2015]   |  


Survival among hemodialysis patients is disturbingly low, partly because vascular calcification (VC) and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent. Elevated serum phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) levels play an essential role in the formation of VC events. The purpose of the current study was to reveal optical monitoring possibilities of serum P and Ca values during dialysis. Twenty-eight patients from Tallinn (Estonia) and Linköping (Sweden) were included in the study. The serum levels of Ca and P on the basis of optical information, i.e., absorbance and fluorescence of the spent dialysate (optical method) were assessed. Obtained levels were compared in means and SD. The mean serum level of Ca was 2.54 ± 0.21 and 2.53 ± 0.19 mmol/L; P levels varied between 1.08 ± 0.51 and 1.08 ± 0.48 mmol/L, measured in the laboratory and estimated by the optical method respectively. The levels achieved were not significantly different (p = 0.5). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between the two methods varied from −0.19 to 0.19 for Ca and from −0.37 to 0.37 in the case of P. In conclusion, optical monitoring of the spent dialysate for assessing the serum levels of Ca and P during dialysis seems to be feasible and could offer valuable and continuous information to medical staff. View Full-Text
Keywords: dialysis; vascular calcification; calcium; phosphorus; optical monitoring; ultraviolet absorbance; fluorescence dialysis; vascular calcification; calcium; phosphorus; optical monitoring; ultraviolet absorbance; fluorescence

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Holmar, J.; Uhlin, F.; Fernström, A.; Luman, M.; Jankowski, J.; Fridolin, I. An Optical Method for Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Level Assessment during Hemodialysis. Toxins 2015, 7, 719-727.

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